Togiki (outside listening) is the task of not entering too deeply into enemy territory and yet still being able to gather information from the outside, according to the Shoninki shinobi manual. An army would send a shinobi in disguise or stealth to gather information from the enemy by listening from the outside. A shinobi would be wary of false information deliberately fed or lies that may come about simply because of human nature.
A shinobi would need to identify which is truth, Dori, and which is constructed logic, ri. Ri is the false, the man-made information and the arguments constructed with an agenda., while Dori is the truth of the matter, the reality.
Shinobi were trained to watch the smoke rising from castles. If the smoke from cooking fires and kitchens was too much, too little, or later than normal, a shinobi would know that the enemy had either started to evacuate or that they were preparing extra food for those going on night raids or that the food stores were diminishing.
According the Sun Tzu's Art of War:
Prior information enables wise rulers and worthy generals to move and conquer, brings them success beyond that of the multitude. This information cannot be obtained from spirits; it cannot be deduced by analogy; it cannot be calculated by measurement. It can only be obtained from men, from those who know the enemy's dispositions.Kamari-monomi (hidden scouting) is done while wearing armor by a group of shinobi or togiki (listening scouts).